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125. 126. 127. 128a. 130. 133. 134. 139. 140. 146. 147. 148a. 149. 156. 158. 162. 164. 165. 166. 167. 171. 172b. 173. 175. 177. 179. 180. 15 19 cf. ➋⑩ ➋ ⑥ → ❻➃ ❽ ❼ ❼ ❺ ❷ ❷➛ ❷ ❺❼ ❻ ⑦ ❻➙ ❽❺ ⑥ ❹➄❺ ➈ ➄❺ ➃ ➆⑦ ➄ ➑ ❺ ➆➜ ⑥ ❷ ➋ ⑧⑨ ❺❼ ❻ ❾ ⑧⑨ ➉ ➉❾ ➣ ➁ ❾ ⑩ ⑧⑨ ➀ ⑩ ➋ ⑧➅ ➀ ⑩ ➣ ⑩ ⑧➀ ➊❾ ➀ ➁ ⑨ ❾ ⑩ ⑧ ➓ ⑧ ⑧ ➊ ⑩ ➋ ⑧➅ ⑩ ❾ ⑨ ⑩ ⑧➋ ❿⑨ ➁ ⑨ ❺❽➈ ❷ ➀ ⑨ ⑩ ➉ ➓ ⑩ ⑥ ❽❺❻➃ ❽ ❾ ⑧⑨ ⑩ ⑧ ➉ ❾ ⑩ ➅ ⑨ ⑦ ⑥ ❻ ↔ ❽ ❹➎ ➄❺ ❻ ➃ ❽ ↕ ⑦ ➌ ❻ ❹ ❽ ➄❺ ➃ ❻ kill corn bite woman swim nose see eye where ear bone egg father tree, stick stone hold little leg black pull when what round straight spit dry season dry seed sit fear earth crooked guts fingernail, claw urucu old ⑦ ❽ ➄❺ ⑥ ➅ ⑩ ➀ ➁ ⑩ ➋ ⑩ ⑧❿➀ ⑩ ⑨ ➊ ⑧❿➀ ⑩ ⑧ ⑩ ❾ ➉❾ ⑨ ➅ ⑧ ➓ ➝ ⑨ ⑧⑩ ❾ ❿➅ ⑧ ?

It can also occur as the only element of the syllable. ’ –al –PRES NEUT –i –ASSR ❏ The rounded high vowel [u] and its allophone [ ❄ ] occur in the syllable nucleus, next to all consonants. They can occur in onsetless and codaless syllables as well. ’ –i –ASSR (29) olumata● /❝ ❀ ❄ ❈ ■ ❉ ✾ ✾ / ● [❝ ❃ ❅❵ ❛ ❃ ■ ✾ ❃ ✼ ✾ ✿ ] ‘cow’ (30) uma /❄ ❈ ■❉ ✾ / [❅ ❛ ❃ ■ ✾ ] ‘capybara’ (Hydrochoerus capybara) (31) kapune / ❭ ✾ ❂ ❄ ❈ ✽ ❉€ / [❭ ✾ ❃ ❅ ❆ ❛ ❃ ✽ ❢ ] ‘paca’ (Cuniculus paca) –i –ASSR 34 Phonology The vowel / ❄ / may surface in the syllable margin, in which case it forms a diphthong with the syllable nucleus: (32) da– tapawulu 1POSS– clay pot ❍ ● ❍ /❚ ✾ ✾● ❂ ✾ ❄ ❄ ❀ ❄ ■ ❁ / [✼ ❚ ✾ ✿ ❃ ✾ ❃ ❅ ❂ ✾ ❣ ❃ ❖ ❛ ❃ ✼ ❀ ❄ ‘my clay pot’ –mi –REF ✿ ❃■ ❁ ] The mid-front vowel /e/ is relatively rare.

However, the Southern Nambikwara languages have different consonant phonemes. For Kithãulhu, Kroeker (2001: 79) reports glottalized and aspirated consonants as well as one implosive /➏ / and one affricate / ➐ ➑ /. 44 Phonology Table 6 presents the phonetic realizations of the phonemes in Table 5. Consonants in the same cell are allophones. Rare allophones are between parentheses. 2 ➙ ➣ ➓ ➔ ➙➛ ➣ ➔ ➜ DORSAL → ➣ → ➓ ↔ ➔ GLOTTAL ↕ ➝ ➞ ➟ ➛ ➠ ➣ ➔ ➡ ➤ ➣ ➢ ➔ ➡ ➣ ➥ ➔ Consonant Phonemes and their Allophones The voiceless labial stop /➦ / is realized as [➦ ] in the beginning and in the middle of a word preceding any vowel.

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