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Extra resources for A Tagalog Reference Grammar

Example text

2 3 -+ 2 Dayan ka na, ha? S / I -+/: used for: a. b. 0110 in confirmation questions (cf. 6 ); the se nte nce· fanal particle /ta in sentences expressing sarcasm or a challenge t o an assertion (cf. c. the sentence-final particle o (cf. §6. 1 3). 13); Examples: a. - t Maganda 110, 1am>'? 2 . ' J f1 - . Nahub ka kahapon, ano'? ' b. + I -+ Marunong Ka. ha'? 'You think you 're smart. ' 2 t 1 ... Hindi ka ba papasok. ha? is u se ha may also carry pattern , e. l . )-+ l- Ayun s1 Juan, o. ' 2 ) -+ I -+ Ayusm mo nga 1to, o.

In the case of other bases, the replacement is optional, either /d/ or /r/ being acceptable. And in the case of still others, /d/ is always retained. Illustrations of the obligatory replacement of /d/ by /r/ are: dalita /da·lita'/ 'poverty' maralita /mara·lita'/ dapat /da·pat/ 'should' nararapal /na·rara·pat/ 'proper' Jinig /dinig/ 'hearing' makarinig /makarinig/ 'hear' { { { Illustrations of the optional replacement of /d/ by /r/ are : du mi dami dagdagan •dirt' /dumih/ /d:i•mih/ •quantily' •add' /dagdag:m/ lllustr:itions of the retention of /d/ are: marumi /marumih/ madumi /madumih/ marami /mara•mih/ madami /mada·mih/ } } daragdagan /da•ragdagan/ dadagdagan /da•dagdagan/ 'poor' 'dirty' } 'many' 'will add' dahon /da•hon/ 'lcar madahon /mada·hon/ 'leafy' dilim /dilim/ 'darkness' madilim /m:idilim/ 'dark' duwag /du wag/ 'cowardly' naduwag /naduwag/ •turned coward' There arc six very common words - 1he four deictics dito, dine, d/ya11, doon, (see cnclitics.

Clauses o f certain types, and sentences. (The writing system of Tagalog, like that of English, reflects the position of such pauses in the placement of punctuation marks like commas. ) P3uses of this kind may be called O B LIGATO R Y PAUSES. 2). Jn general, the more deliberate or formal the style of speech used, the more numerous are the optional pauses. Certain generalizations can be made about the occurrence of optional pauses in Tagalog: I. , ang, si, 11g, an element that 11i, sa, kay, mga, ay, may, k1111g, cannot occur in sentence-final the linker 11a/-11g, etc.

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