By Gema Frühbeck (auth.), Kaiping Yang (eds.)
Since the booklet of the 1st variation, the innovations and experimental methods hired within the examine of adipose tissue have passed through radical enlargement and revision. In Adipose Tissue Protocols: moment Edition, a number of up to date chapters are mixed with many new contributions from across the world famous specialists masking either traditional and cutting-edge methodologies in addition to entire animal, mobile and molecular techniques that have emerged in or been prolonged to adipose tissue examine during the last few years. As a quantity within the hugely sucessful Methods in Molecular Biology™ sequence, every one bankruptcy contains an advent to its subject material, an inventory of valuable fabrics, step by step, without problems reproducible laboratory protocols, and a Notes part, which supplies worthwhile information and tips to shield opposed to power mishaps and pitfalls.
Cutting-edge and finished, Adipose Tissue Protocols: moment Edition is an important handbook for novices to this burgeoning region in addition to a necessary addition to the laboratories and workplaces of more matured researchers.
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Additional info for Adipose Tissue Protocols
Hotamisligil GS (2006) Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature 444:860–867 59. Loncar D (1991) Convertible adipose tissue in mice. Cell Tissue Res 266:149–161 60. Champigny O, Ricquier D, Blondel O, et al (1991) Beta 3-adrenergic receptor stimulation restores message and expression of brown-fat mitochondrial uncoupling protein in adult dogs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:10774–10777 61. Cousin B, Casteilla L, Dani C, et al (1993) Adipose tissues from various anatomical sites are characterized by different patterns of gene expression and regulation.
3) 1. 3. to reach the BAT. 2. Carefully separate AT from muscle above the shoulders. 34 L. Casteilla et al. 3. Carefully start to raise the IBAT; nerve fibers can now be seen arising from under each shoulder muscle. 4. Cut them at two points and remove the fragment to block regeneration. 5. Suture skin. 2 Retroperitoneal AT 1. The retroperitoneal fat pad is innervated by three nerve fibers, and the contralateral pad can be used as control. In this case, use the left or right one at random. 2. , but the opening must be as small as possible.
The cellular mechanisms involved in this plasticity are not clearly deciphered. Although the overexpression of co-activator of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PGC-1, drives the emergence of brown adipocyte phenotype from white adipocyte, convergent data, including genetic manipulations allowing irreversible labeling of brown adipocytes, show the independence of both lineages (65,66). Both hypotheses could be reconciled by considering that brown adipocytes could be transformed into a white adipocyte-like cells that we call dormant or masked brown adipocytes (5).