Download Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology, Volume by W. Babel, A. Steinbuechel (Editor) PDF

By W. Babel, A. Steinbuechel (Editor)

Residing platforms synthesize seven diversified periods of polymers. they supply constitution and shape for cells and organisms, functionality as catalysts and effort garage and hold the genetic details. these kinds of polymers own technically fascinating homes. a few of these biopolymers are already used commercially. This specific quantity of Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology includes 10 chapters. It provides an summary of the water insoluble biopolyesters, specifically of the microbially synthesized poly-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) relations. It reviews the cutting-edge of metabolism, law and genetic historical past, the newest advances made in genetic optimization of micro organism, "construction" of transgenic vegetation and in vitro synthesis by way of purified enzymes. additionally, it describes suitable applied sciences and evaluates views touching on expanding the commercial viability and competitiveness of PHA and discusses functions in medication, packaging, meals and different fields.

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Some cutinases of very different sizes have also been reported [110, 111]. However, some of these that show very low activity may be esterases similar to those found to be produced by cutin-grown F. solani f. pisi when cutinase was first purified [100] rather than true cutinases. However, the occurrence of membrane-bound constitutive cutinases [110, 112] cannot be ruled out. When polyester-hydrolyzing activity was isolated using synthetic polyesters such as polycaprolactone, and the enzyme was examined in detail, it was found that it was a cutinase that was responsible for the hydrolysis [113].

111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 47 Sherf B, Bajar AM, Kolattukudy PE (1993) Plant Physiol 101:201 Hankin L, Kolattukudy PE (1971) Plant Soil 34:525 Patty BR, Chandra AK (1981) Plant Soil 61:419 Sebastian J, Chandra AK, Kolattukudy PE (1987) J Bacteriol 169:131 Sebastian J, Kolattukudy PE (1988) Arch Biochem Biophys 263:77 Sebastian J (1987) Discovery and purification of cutinase and cloning of cutinase gene from a Pseudomonas sp. cohabitting with an apparently nitrogen-fixing Corynebacterium sp.

Since cutin is the first barrier, one of the key enzymes involved in this process was postulated to be cutinase. However, direct examination of the role of such enzymes was not possible until cutinase was purified in the 1970s [13, 100]. With the availability of the purified enzyme, its cDNA [155], and gene [156], it became possible to investigate the role of cutinase in the penetration through the cuticular layer. The evidence that suggests that cutinase may be important in this process can be summarized as follows [27]: (a) Pathogenic fungi produce and secrete cutinase targeted at the penetration point and during actual infection of the host such an enzyme is produced as detected immunocytochemically.

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