By J. Mangala
During the last decade, Africa’s heart of gravity in international politics has shifted from mere humanitarianism to a strategic view that posits the centrality of the continent as power and average assets provider, within the struggle opposed to terrorism and different defense threats, and within the globalization of tradition. in addition to those issues, this shift is reflective of 2 defining dynamics. On one hand, political and fiscal reforms have contributed to the expansion of democracy, an development within the financial outlook, and the strengthening of local governance. however, the continued diffusion of worldwide strength is surroundings the degree for a brand new foreign order during which Africa will more and more subject. This ebook probes the significance and importance of those advancements and their implications for Africa’s diplomacy.
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Extra info for Africa and the New World Era: From Humanitarianism to a Strategic View
45 Africa’s energy and mining sectors have become the primary investment attractions for American capital. For example, Shell, Exxon, and Texaco have made major investments in the oil sector of various African oil producing states. -Africa trade relations are shaped and conditioned by the exploitative international capitalist system and its associated power asymmetries. The resultant trading system is based on two major pillars. Under the “division of labor,” the United States manufactures goods such as machinery, which it sells to various African states.
Africa in World Politics (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2009), 315. 49. S. Approach Toward Africa (New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 2006), 127. 50. Commission of the European Communities, From Cairo to Lisbon: The EU-Africa Strategic Partnership, COM (2007) 357 final, 2. 51. Vijay Mahajan, African Rising: How 900 Million African Consumers Offer More Than You Think (Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2009). 52. George Ayittey, Africa in Chaos (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1998). 53. See John Ghaznivan, Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil (Orlando: Harcourt, 2007).
AFRICA RELATIONS 29 and Uganda, are undergoing the “debt forgiveness rituals,” comprising various steps that are anchored on the twin requirements that these states acquiesce in the continuation of American imperialist plunder and pillage on the continent and pledge to continue on the peripheral capitalist path. Private Investment Like loans, since the final stage of the era of “old globalization,” foreign investment has served as a major conduit for transferring wealth from Africa to the members of the American ruling class.