Download Ageing : the paradox of life by Robin Holliday PDF

By Robin Holliday

For hundreds of years humans were wondered via the inevitability of human getting older. for many of the second one 1/2 the 20th century getting older remained a secret, or an unsolved organic challenge. on the finish of the 20 th century a striking clinical discovery emerged. It was once now not a unmarried discovery within the traditional experience, since it used to be in line with a sequence of vital interconnected insights over fairly an extended time period. those insights made it attainable for the first actual time to appreciate the organic purposes for getting older in animals and guy. it may well already be stated, notwithstanding, that the numerous observations and insights that specify getting older usually are not permitted as proven wisdom for a very long time. the sphere continues to be packed with scientists, and non-scientists, who're simply satisfied to head on speculating concerning the 'mystery' of getting older. the purpose of this booklet is to dispel lack of knowledge through explaining in non-technical language what are the explanations for getting older and the parable of over the top prolongation of existence.

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Because only in this way can we explain the multiple and irreversible causes of ageing. Many of the causes of ageing I have outlined take place in nondividing cells. What about cells capable of cell division? In these cases cells that die or are lost, for whatever reason, should be be replaced by new cells. However, it is now well established that many types of dividing cells have in fact limited growth potential. After dividing a given number of times, they themselves become senescent and fail to divide again.

G. crosslinking, oxidation, glycation) Accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates Mutations in chromosomal DNA; chromosomal changes Deletions in mitochondrial DNA Hormonal and physiological imbalance Abnormalities in gene function leading to cancer Abnormalities in the modification of DNA (epigenetic defects) Partial or complete loss of hearing and vision As I have said, the multiple causes of ageing mean that there is some truth in many, or all, of the serious theories of ageing. The various molecules and cellular defects come from several or many causes, and it is highly likely that these causes relate in one way or another to the individual theories which have been proposed.

Normal skeletal muscle can regenerate, if damaged, and broken bones can re-join. All these are necessary to maintain normal body functions. Nevertheless, in mammals repair and regeneration is a compromise. Lower vertebrates such as amphibians can often regenerate a severed limb, and many lizards regenerate tails. As evolution proceeded some of this regenerative ability was lost. In mammals and birds a lost limb is not regained by regeneration, and if major nerves are severed, they do not rejoin or regenerate.

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