By V.A. Lefebvre
In this ebook moral structures are defined within the language of arithmetic. quite often arithmetic is believed to be a technology of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. straightforward utilized arithmetic offers with reckoning and dimension, the place concrete amounts are items of recognition, similar to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with the aid of symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or lots of corno hence, the 1st precept that indicates the facility of arithmetic is abstraction. it's one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. generally, guy communicates through phrases. W ords serve conversation to the level that they check with issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, etc. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. conversation is winning to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases by means of the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded through the hearer. As is weH identified, the measure ofthis correspondence varies drastically in numerous contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language during which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are completely exact. This precision is accomplished by means of abstraction. summary phrases are outlined by means of their family members to different phrases and by means of not anything else.
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Extra resources for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
Structure 4: A+BfO. 36 CHAPTER VII Guilt and condemnation cannot appear at the same time. In tbis structure doubt is absent. Therefore, an absence of doubts implies the impossibility of feeling both guilt and condemnation at the same time. In tbis case an individual's transformation of a bad intention into a good action is impossible by awareness of evil. THE SECOND ETHICAL SYSTEM Structure 1: where A == aä • b and B == b. Suppose a = 0, Thus, A = 5 and B = b. Therefore if A doubts the correctness of bis image of himself and does not doubt that ofbis adversary, he feels guilty when he has a bad intention and his adversary has a good intention.
Q Q Q 2. Fig. 3. The automata corresponding to individuals who have images of themselves and of their partner being in relationships '+ '. 1 An example of individuals' reactions to various combinations of environmental demands. 4). 2 has an incorrect image of himself. 2. We see that Iaa . 3. We see that the ethical status ofthe individuals with simplest structures is higher ifthey have a correct image of themselves, compared with individuals differing only in that they have an incorrect image of themselves.
We will eall this parameter the ethical status ofthe individual. It indieates the degree to whieh an individual resists the temptation proffered by the environment. We will show that there are individuals who have only l's at their outputs: they refuse aH temptations. But there are also individuals who agree to any direetions of the environment. The former have an ethieal status equal to 1; the latter, to J. The ethieal status of an individual is thus always loeated in the closed inter val [J, 1].