By Leonard Susskind

During the last decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein’s awareness that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound matters in regards to the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in an international with gravity. for 2 many years those questions questioned theoretical physicists and at last ended in a revolution within the means we predict approximately house, time, subject and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a impressive precept known as "The Holographic Principle", that's now an important concentration of realization in gravitational learn, quantum box thought and user-friendly particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String concept, develops and explains those options.

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**Example text**

E. in Rindler space. To understand the new feature, recall that in the usual vacuum state, the correlation between ﬁelds at diﬀerent spatial points does not vanish. 5) Quantum Fields in Rindler Space 33 , t= 8 ω= 8 T r > 2MG p= 2 r < 2MG ω=+4 p= 1 ω=+3 ω=+2 ω=+1 ω=0 Z ρ=0 ω=−1 (Horizon) ω=−2 Light cone ω=−3 ω=−4 Fig. 5 represents the quantum correlation seen by Fido’s in Region I. On the other hand, the two points might lie on opposite sides of the horizon at Z = 0. In that case the correlation is unmeasurable to the Fidos in Region I.

4 ordinary vacuum ﬂuctuations are shown superimposed on a Rindler coordinate mesh. One virtual loop (a) is contained entirely in Region I. That ﬂuctuation can be thought of as a conventional ﬂuctuation described by the quantum Hamiltonian HR . The ﬂuctuation (b) contained in Region III has no signiﬁcance to the Fidos in Region I. Finally there are loops like (c) which are partly in Region I but which also enter into Region III. These are the ﬂuctuations which lead to nontrivial entanglements between the degrees of freedom χL and χR , and which cause the density matrix of Region I to be a mixed state.

There are two viewpoints we can adopt toward the description of the particle’s motion. The ﬁrst is the viewpoint of the Fidos who are permanently stationed outside the black hole. It is a viewpoint which is also useful to a distant observer, since any observation performed by a Fido can be communicated to distant observers. According to this viewpoint, the particle never crosses the horizon but asymptotically approaches it. The second viewpoint involves freely falling observers (FREFOS) who follow the particle as it falls.