By Yunzhi Geng
This booklet examines intimately the fundamental trajectory of the cultural transformation and brings to mild the extrinsic stipulations and intrinsic mechanisms concerned. It specializes in the interval from after the Opium Wars to the hot tradition stream, because the New tradition stream will be thought of a pivotal part within the cultural transformation of modern day China. the recent tradition stream was once a innovative eruption prompted through the buildup of all of the new qualitative cultural elements because the Opium Wars. Superficially, the movement’s target looked to be to overthrow the conventional tradition. yet in essence its actual goal was once to behavior an total “screening” of that tradition. The ebook elaborates a wide number of issues during this context, together with: the ideological and cultural evolution following the Opium Wars; the urgent demanding situations confronted by way of “Zhong Ti”; the preliminary shaping of social, public and cultural areas and significant tendencies in ideological and cultural transformation on the finish of the Qing Dynasty; the political disarray and conflicts among the recent and outdated ideology within the first years of the Republic; the increase of the recent tradition circulation; and the function of conservatism within the transition to a contemporary culture.
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Extra info for An Introductory Study on China's Cultural Transformation in Recent Times
Hence, his social criticisms and aspersions were highly pertinent and as well as rousing and convincing. Gong Zizhen sensed that an enormous crisis was brewing in Qing society. 46 The later-day scholar Hou Wailu (1903–1987) maintained that Gong Zizhen’s words foretold of a popular revolution, which they hewed very closely to realities, and could well be regarded as a sharp warning to the rulers. Gong Zizhen clearly identified the reason for this crisis as the rulers’ extreme centralization of powers.
And in what way were the people inferior? “They are inferior not because of that which Heaven has or has not conferred upon them, but because they themselves are inferior. One may be shamed because of what Heaven has or has not conferred, but one can do nothing about that. One is especially shamed when the people themselves are inferior, and when one can do something about such shame. ”14 Knowing shame and striving for self-strengthening was a most important concept. In the first 20 years, the great majority of officials and scholars did not know shame and refused to admit they were inferior to others.
40, p. 44. 7 Protestations from Xiaobin Studio: Opinions on Manufacturing Western Products, vol. 2, p. 42, engraved in the 10th year of the Guangxu reign. 5 32 2 Evolution in Ideology and Culture After the Opium Wars and Up To the. . ’”8 Such was the typical state of mind of China’s officials-cum-literati: Essays were everlasting, and all else was not worth mentioning. There was even less understanding of Western religions. Wei Yuan’s Illustrated Treatises on the Maritime Kingdoms included an article entitled “Catholicism: A Study,” which more or less claimed that Western religions had simply borrowed contents from Buddhism and which drew false analogies with the Confucian teachings.